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  The Single Photon Chip

 The Single Photon Chip

The Single Photon Chip is a patented technology for deterministically generating single photons. It is based on ultra-precise GaAs Quantum dot structures, which when excited by an external laser will produce single photons. The photons emitted by the quantum dot are collected by a nano-photonic waveguide. The on-demand photon stream is subsequently directed to an out coupling grating that emits the photons vertically off the chip. To obtain a high purity and coherence of the single photon, the chip must be cooled down to below~6 K.
 
 
Figure 1. The quantumdot embedded in a photonic-crystal waveguide. The quantum dot is excited by an external laser and emits single photons.
Figure 2. The guided path of the collected single photons. A nano-photonic waveguide directs the photons from the quantum dot to an out coupling grating.
 
Sparrow SPS Component

The Single-Photon Source (SPS) free space component supplies the SPS chip in a housing that allows for integrating with most standard cryogenic setups and a window gives visual inspection possible and allows for in and outcoupling of the laser signal. The operating temperature of the chip is 0-6 K and must be obtained by placing the housing in a cryostat. The housing is open with direct optical access for excitation of the chip and collection of the SPS signal. The excitation source must have a wavelength 800-960 nm. The chip is aligned relative to the housing, such that both excitation and emission can be done perpendicular to the housing. Figure 2 shows a typical optical setup around the component
 
 
 
 
Fig. 3. Free space housing of the SPS chip. The chip is placed on metal plate which allows for coupling to a cryostat. In the free space version a transparent top lid allows for in and outcoupling of an optical signal. The chip is placed at an angle relative to the housing window which allows for in and outcoupling through the same optical path perpendicular to the housing. The table shows the specifications for the component.
 
Figure 4: Typical optical setup around the SPS free space component. The component is placed in the cryostat at the right. A laser excitation source is coupled perpendicular to the component. The emission signal is collected from the same path, and an optical setup ensures the separation between the excitation and emission signal, as well as filtering the single photon source from excitations from other quantum dots on the chip.
 
 
 
SPS fiber coupled component
The Chip will in 2020 be available in a fiber coupled version. The Single Photon Source (SPS) fiber coupled component supplies the SPS chip in a housing with a single mode fiber for the input and another fiber for the output signal. The chip is placed on a thermal anchor that allows for integrating with most standard cryogenic setups. In this setup it is not possible to visually inspect the chip and all integration with the chip is through the tapered fibers. The only difference with the free space version is that in the fiber coupled version the optical coupling with the chip is through a fiber coupling. We note that the optical setup illustrated in Fig. 4 is also required for the fiber coupled chip. 
 
Fig. 6. The Sparrow 930 nm plug and play SPS module, including the Montana cryostat to the right and the optical circuitry in the box to the left. 
 
Fig. 7 Top view of the Sparrow SPS 930 nm module.
 
SPS 1550 nm module
The SPS 1550 nm module is a fully integrated plug and play solution that supplies single photons with 1550 nm wavelength for compatibility with standard telecommunication equipment. The module is an extension of the 930 nm module with a wavelength up-conversion component.
 
 
 
Fig. 8. The Sparrow 1550 nm plug and play SPS module. The module is an extension of the Sparrow 930 nm module with a wavelength up-conversion component.

 


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